学点语音知识

2017-6-14 admin 英语科普

1.关于语音的几个概念

1)  字母:语言的书写形式。元音字母a, e, i(y), o, u,
2)  音标:词的语音形式。
3)  音素:音的最小的单位。英语中有48音素。
4)  音节:由元音和辅音构成的发音单位。ap"ple, stu"dent, tea"cher, un"der"stand
5)  元音:发音响亮,是乐音;口腔中气流不收阻碍;是构成音节的主要音。英语中有20元音。
6)  辅音:发音不响亮,是噪音;口腔中气流受到阻碍;不是构成音节的主要音。英语中有28辅音。
7)  开音节:a) 辅音+元音+辅音+e name bike home due; b) 辅音+元音 he, go, hi
8)  闭音节:a) 辅音+元音+辅音 bad, bed, sit, hot, cup; b)元音+辅音it
9)  重读音节:单词中发音特别响亮的音节。

2. 元音:(注意:下面空方括号是电脑无法输入的音标)
1) [i:] sea, he, see, piece, ceiling 
2) [i] sit, build, miss, myth1  
3) [e] bed, desk, head,  
4) [ ] bad, land, bank, stamp  
5) [a:] car, fast, class, plant, calm, aunt  
6) [ ] hot, want  
7) [  ] door, more, sport, ball, warm, author, court, bought, caught  
8) [u:] good, who, blue, soup,  
9) [u] look, put, women, could  
10) [ ] cup, come, blood, rough  
11) [ ] girl, work, serve, nurse  
12) [ ] cadre, ago, forget, polite, dollar, doctor, famous, Saturday  
13) [ei] cake, they, play, eight, great,  
14) [ai] bike, die, neither, light, try, find, height, eye  
15) [  ] phone, cold, boat, soul, grow  
16) [au] house, town  
17) [  ] boy, oil  
18) [  ] dear, idea, deer, here, fierce,  
19) [  ] pear, care, there, fair  
20) [  ] tour, poor,

3. 容易混淆的元音
1) [e] [] bed bad; men, man; pen, pan2; lend land  
2) [i:] [ei] real rail; greet, great; mean, main; read raid  
3) [e] [AI] bet3 bite; red write; said side, head, hide  
4) [au] [  ] house horse; loud lord4; south sauce; now nor; count corn; cloud clause  
5) [au] [ ] found fond; gown5 gone; down don

4. 辅音
1) [p] pen,  
2) [b] bed, comb  
3) [t] tell,  
4) [d], day, played, wanted  
5) [k] cold, sky, quick, school, back, accept, box  
6) [g] big, go, guess, language  
7) [m] man  
8) [n] nine, knife, autumn  
9) [ ] bank, uncle, English, sing,  
10) [l] land, world  
11) [r] read, write,  
12) [f] five, cough, laugh  
13) [v] voice, of  
14) [ ] think,  
15) [ ] this, bathe  
16) [s] sit, miss, science, case, scarf  
17) [z] zoo, close,  
18) [ ] sure, she, social, nation  
19) [ ] pleasure,  
20) [h] hot, who, hour  
21) [w] wall, what, answer  
22) [j] yes  
23) [  ] child, teach, catch  
24) [  ] joke, bridge,  
25) [ts] boats  
26) [dz] goods  
27) [tr] tree  
28) [dr] dream

5. 容易混淆的辅音
1)  [v] [w] vet7 wet; vest west; vine8 wine; very well  
2)  [s] [ ] sink think; sort thought; miss myth; mass math  
3)  [z] [ ] closing clothing; breeze9 breathe; bays bathes  
4)  [n] [ ] thin thing; sin6 sing; ban bang10 win wing; ran rang  
 

6. 读音规则
1)  重读音节(见元音和辅音的例句)
2)  非重读音节 [ ] banana, student, today, after, [i] orange, secret, evening, very, Monday

7. 特殊读音
1)音的连读:前面的词以元辅音结尾,后面的单词以元音开头,这样结尾的辅音要和开头的元音连读。例如:not at all, half an hour, I love you and all. after all
2)失去爆破:辅音爆破音或摩擦音后面跟的是爆破音、破擦音和摩擦等,前面的辅音要失去爆破。例如:good girl, good student, good job, expression, school, extreme
3)音的同化:两个特殊的音碰到一起,会发出变异成特殊的音。例如:Would you do it? I am glad to meet you. Can"t you see it? last year, this year,
 

8. 重音
1)单词重音
A)双音节词
a)一般在第一个音节重读。letter, sorry
b)有 a-, be-, de-, re-, res-, in-, im-, en-, em-, es-, ex-, con-, com-, dis-, mis-, pre-, per-, pro-, trans- 等前缀的词,第二个音节是重音。a"bout, be"lieve, ad"dress, de"cide, re"port, con"demn, res"pect, com"pare, in"form, dis"cuss,  im"press, mis"take, en"force, pre"pare, em"ploy, per"mit, es"cape, pro"duce, ex"claim,trans"late  
c)有 de-, in-, re-, con-, pre-  等前缀的重音与词义和词类有关, 一般名词的重音在第一个音节上,其它的词性在第二个音节上。"record, re"cord; "insult11, in"sult; "conduct, con"duct; "present pre"sent; "content, con"tent  
d)有些复合词和带有前缀 re-, ex-, un-, pre-, post-, 等的词,有两个重音。"out"side, "re"tell, "well-"known, "un"real, "fif"teen, "Chi"nese, "pre-"war, "post-"war  
B)多音节词
a)一般倒数第三个音节是重音。"difficult, "communist, "family, e"conomy, oppor"tunity,de"mocracy.  
b)有一些双音节词,加了前缀和后缀成了多音节,但这些词按原来词根的重音读音。"carefully, in"definite, "comfortable, con"ductor, ac"cording, dis"turbance, "complicated,es"tablishment,  
c)词尾有-eous, -grahpy, -ial, -ian, -ic, -ics, -ience, ient, -ify, -ion, -ious, -ity, ive 后缀的词,重音在这些后缀的前一个音节上。cour"teous, cal"ligraphy, edi"torial, his"torian, peri"odic, mathe"matics, ex"perience,suf"ficient, i"dentify, trans"lation, re"ligious, curi"osity, pro"tective  
d)词尾有 -ain, -ee, -eer, -ese, -ette 后缀的词,重音在该后缀上,而且有一个次重音。enter"tain, emplo"yee, mountai"neer, Japa"nese, ciga"rette 

2)句子重音

A) 英语的节奏:(轻)-轻-重-轻-(轻)或重-轻-(轻)(轻)重

B) 英语句子的长短:是由句子中的重读词的数目决定的,而不是象汉语那样由句子中的汉字数目决定的。

C) 实词重读(副词重读),虚词轻读(冠词,单音节介词,单音节连词,人称代词,反代词,物主代词,关系代词,相互代词,助动词,情态动词和系动词be

D) 实词不重读的特殊情况
a) 实词第二次出现 He thinks of that as a child thinks.  
b)  一个名词被第二个名词修饰 I met her in the railway station.  
c) 代替词 Which book do you want? The small one.  
d)  感叹词中的 what 和how What a good day it is! How beautiful she is!  
e) street 在专有名词中 Wangfujing Street. 
f)this在这些短语中,this morning/afternoon/evening

E)虚词重读的特殊情况
a) 情态动词,助动词和系动词be在句首,句尾和否定时。Do you like it? Yes, I do. Are you a doctor? Yes, I am. Can you help me? Yes, I can.  I don"t like you. He isn"t a worker.  
b) 情态动词表示可能,惊奇和肯定时。They may come this evening. Can it be five already? He must be in the room.  
c) 介词在句首和句尾。In the box, he found a letter. He is the person I talked with.  
d) 引导复合句的连词在句首。If you wish, I"ll visit you. When he comes, I"ll tell him.  
e)反身代词表示强调。He couldn"t come himself.a

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